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The Murphy Corner-Line-Array
An Open Loudspeaker Design Project

by John L. Murphy
Physicist/Audio Engineer

1. MCLA Project Home
2. Design Concepts

3. MCLA Project Details
4. Single Driver Test Results

5. Array Test Results
6. Line References/Links
7. Project Log
8. MCLA Discussion Thread

 6. Line Array References and Links

Line Array Technical References:

Smith, David L. , "Discrete-Element Line Arrays - Their Modeling and Optimization", J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol.45, no.11, 1997 November

Stanley P. Lipshitz and John Vanderkooy, “The Acoustic Radiation of Line Sources of Finite
Length”, AES Preprint No. 2417, presented at the 81st AES Convention, November 12-16, 1986

Taylor, Paul H., "The Line-Source Loudspeaker and Its Applications," British Kinematography (J. Brit. Kinematograph
Soc.), vol. 44, pp. 64-83, 1964 March

L. L. Beranek, Acoustics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1954)

Russell, R.,  “A Unique Stereo Column System”, audioXpress magazine November 2005

Russell, R., “Upgrading a Unique Stereo Column System”, audioXpress magazine July 2006

Available online:

Jim Griffin's paper, "Design Guidelines for Practical Near Field Line Arrays", dated 2003

Roger Russell's Sound Column History


NOTE: The following paper discusses line arrays in the FAR FIELD as used for large scale concert sound systems. This analysis does not apply to the MCLA which is used in the near field but is included for those wishing a wider study of line array loudspeaker systems.

Mark S. Ureda, “Line Arrays: Theory and Applications”, presented at the 110th AES
Convention, Amsterdam, May 12-15,2001.

Image Method References:

Available online:

C.F. Eyring, "Reverberation Time in 'Dead' Rooms," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., (1930, Jan.).

J. B. Allen and D. A. Berkley, "Image method for efficiently simulating small-room
acoustics." J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 943–950 (1979).

Richard V. Waterhouse, "Output of a Sound Source in a Reverberation Chamber and Other Reflecting Environments." J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 30, no. 1 (1958).

Advances in Edge Diffraction Modeling for Virtual-Acoustic Simulations
PhD Dissertation) by Paul Calamia
(see section 2.1.2 for discussion of the image method)


Other Loudspeaker References:

Floyd D. Toole, "Sound Reproduction: The Acoustics and Psychoacoustics of Loudspeakers and Rooms.", Focal Press, 2008

Other DIY Line Array Projects for Residential Use:

Darren Kuzma's Kuze 3201 line arrays using 32 Tang Band 2" drivers per side:

Louis Coraggio's Thin Blue Line Array:

Bill Fiztmaurice's TLAH 2-way line array

Commercial Line Array Speakers for Residential Use:

PipeDreams (2-way plus sub) line array systems: Suggested retail prices from $20,000 - $80,000

Roger Russell's IDS-25 full range line array: Priced at $18,900

Rick Craig's Selah Audio: Line arrays from $7,990

Dali Megaline: Priced at $40,000

Monacor Lightning (kit):

Scaena Iso-Linear Array:  A line array with price tag ranging from $44,000 to $75,000

ClaireAudient Line Source Array: A full range bi-pole line array of 3" drivers, $35,000 (16 driver version)

FREE Array Simulation Software:

Vertical Polar Response Line Array at the FRD Consortium:


Next: 7. MCLA Project Log


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